Archaeology dating coins
For example, synagogue inscriptions and tombstones are sometimes dated as so many years after the destruction of the Temple that effectively ended the first revolt.
At just about the time the second revolt ended with the defeat of the Jews, the Romans made Jerusalem into a Roman colony and renamed the city Aelia Capitolina.
Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology.
This usually requires what is commonly known as a "dating method".
Since their first invention in western Turkey in the late seventh century B.
C., coins have been struck in precious metals and copper alloys, and since that time they have been lost, buried in hoards, placed in graves, or otherwise left behind for archaeologists to find.
In other words, dating began with the beginning of the revolt.
Many of the coins also bore legends like “Jerusalem the Holy” or “Freedom of Zion.” The Romans crushed the Jewish revolt in 70 C. (except for the holdouts at Masada, among other places), but the Jews managed to revolt again a little more than 60 years later. As in the first revolt, however, coins are dated beginning with the start of the revolt.
This paper addresses the issue of how coins are dated, and how coins are then used to provide dates on archaeological excavations.
For example, JJA Worsaae used this law to prove the Three Age System.
For more information on stratigraphy and how it is used in archaeology, see the Stratigraphy glossary entry.
During the First Jewish Revolt against Rome (66–70 C.
E.), which ended with the destruction of the Temple, Jews minted their own coins dated to the first, second, third, fourth and, more rarely, even fifth year of the revolt.